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Pulmonary Phisiology 8th edition

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Pulmonary Phisiology 8th edition
The eighth edition of Pulmonary Physiology has been thoroughly updated. Several new figures have been
added and others revised to help students visualize concepts more clearly and learn the material more
effectively. New references and clinical correlations have been added to the end of each chapter. It has
been more than 30 years since Pulmonary Physiology was first published.

The book is now older than
most of the students reading it!
Perhaps the greatest pleasure associated with the first seven editions has been receiving the many
favorable comments and helpful suggestions from students, readers, and colleagues, and I have used many
of these suggestions in the preparation of this new edition.
This book is intended to be used both as an introductory text for beginning students and as a review
for residents and fellows in such fields as internal medicine, anesthesiology, pediatrics, and pulmonary
medicine. Students who have studied the text should be able to review for licensure and certification
examinations by concentrating on the figures, key concepts, tables, and appendices, which summarize
nearly all of the material in the book.
My goal in writing this book is to provide first-year medical students (as well as respiratory therapy,
nursing, nurse-anesthesia, and other students) with a solid background on the aspects of pulmonary
physiology essential for an understanding of clinical medicine. My approach is to encourage selfsufficiency
not only in studying pulmonary physiology for the first time but also in understanding the basic
concepts of pulmonary physiology well enough to apply them with confidence to future patients.
I believe that the ways to accomplish this are to inform the reader of the goals of each chapter with
clearly stated learning objectives, to give detailed and complete explanations of physiologic mechanisms
and demonstrate how they apply to pathologic states, and to give the reader a means of self-testing by
providing clinical correlations, problems, and pulmonary function test data to interpret.



Chapter 1: Function and Structure of the Respiratory System
Functions of the Respiratory System
Structure of the Respiratory System
Key Concepts
Suggested Readings

Chapter 2: Mechanics of Breathing
Generation of a Pressure Difference Between Atmosphere and Alveoli
Pressure-Volume Relationships in the Respiratory System
Interaction of Lung and Chest Wall: The Static Pressure-Volume Curve
Airways Resistance
The Work of Breathing
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 3: Alveolar Ventilation
The Lung Volumes
Measurement of the Lung Volumes
Anatomic Dead Space and Alveolar Ventilation
Measurement of Alveolar Ventilation
Alveolar Ventilation and Alveolar Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Levels
Regional Distribution of Alveolar Ventilation
The Closing Volume
The Effects of Aging
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 4: Blood Flow to the Lung
The Bronchial Circulation
The Functional Anatomy of the Pulmonary Circulation
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance
The Regional Distribution of Pulmonary Blood Flow: The Zones of the Lung
Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction
Pulmonary Edema
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 5: Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships
The Concept of Matching Ventilation and Perfusion
Consequences of High and Low
Testing for Nonuniform Distribution of Inspired Gas and
Pulmonary Blood Flow
Regional Differences and Their Consequences in the Lung
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 6: Diffusion of Gases and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests
Fick’s Law for Diffusion
Limitations of Gas Transfer
Diffusion of Oxygen
Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide
Measurement of Diffusing Capacity
Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 7: Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
Transport of Oxygen by the Blood
Hemoglobin and the Physiologic Implications of the Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Influences on the Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Transport of Carbon Dioxide by the Blood
The Carbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve
The Bohr and Haldane Effects Explained
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 8: Acid-Base Balance
The Chemistry of Acids, Bases, and Buffers
Buffer Systems of the Human Body
Acidosis and Alkalosis
Respiratory and Renal Compensatory Mechanisms
Clinical Interpretation of Blood Gases and Acid-Base Status
The Causes of Hypoxia
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 9: Control of Breathing
The Generation of Spontaneous Rhythmicity
The Medullary Respiratory Center
The Pontine Respiratory Groups
Spinal Pathways
Reflex Mechanisms of Respiratory Control
Influences of Higher Centers
The Response to Carbon Dioxide
The Response to Hydrogen Ions
The Response to Hypoxia
The Response to Exercise
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings

Chapter 10: Nonrespiratory Functions of the Lung
Pulmonary Defense Mechanisms
Nonrespiratory Functions of the Pulmonary Circulation
Metabolic Functions of the Lung
Key Concepts
Suggested Readings

Chapter 11: The Respiratory System Under Stress
Exercise and the Respiratory System
Altitude and Acclimatization
Diving and the Respiratory System
Sleep and the Respiratory System
Key Concepts
Clinical Problems
Suggested Readings
Clinical Problem Answers

I. Symbols Used in Respiratory Physiology
II. The Laws Governing the Behavior of Gases
III. Frequently Used Equations
IV. Table of Normal Respiratory and Circulatory Values
V. General Suggested Readings

Title: Pulmonary Physiology
Author: Michael G. Levitzky
Edition: 8th Edition
Language: English



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