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Principles of Regenerative Biology – Bruce M. Carlson

Titulo del libro: Principles of Regenerative Biology

Autor del libro: Bruce M. Carlson

Formato de libro: EBook

Date published: 2007

Illustrator: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-369439-3

Número de páginas: 400

Libros de Medicina – Rincón Médico

Principles of Regenerative Biology

Regeneration is one of the most fascinating phenomena in biology, but it is also one of the most complex. Virtually all species, from protozoa to humans, have the capacity to regenerate, but the extent of their regenerative ability varies greatly. Planaria, starfish and some worms can regenerate most of their body, whereas many other species are able to regenerate only parts of specifi c tissues. Among the vertebrates, urodele amphibians are the best adapted for regeneration; they can regenerate limbs, tails, jaws, eyes and a variety of internal structures.
For much of the twentieth century, mammals, including humans, were considered to have a poor capacity for regeneration. This was particularly true up to the late 1950s, when I fi rst began to explore the literature on regeneration. A research visit to the Soviet Union during 1965–1966 exposed me to many new ways of looking at mammalian regeneration. Perhaps the most striking to me was the emphasis on uslovie (“conditions”) of regeneration that abounded in the Russian regeneration literature of the 1960s. The essence of this concept was that the success of regeneration often is a function of the environment in which the regenerative process is taking place. I was initially
inclined to attribute this emphasis to the waning infl uence of Lysenkoism, which still permeated the Russian biology of the time. This element was certainly present, but during my several decades of research on regeneration since that time, I have come to appreciate how important the environment is in supporting or failing to support regenerative processes in mammals.
With the explosion of knowledge from molecular biology and the burgeoning interest in generating or regenerating tissues or organs through various tissue engineering or stem cell approaches, many scientists and students have shown a renewed interest in the phenomenon of regeneration. Because relatively few have had the luxury of being able to approach the phenomenon of regeneration from a broad biologic perspective, I thought that it would be useful to write a short book that outlines some of the fundamental biologic principles of regeneration. As the book has evolved, the contents have focused principally on regeneration in vertebrate systems, but when certain points are best illustrated by examples taken from the very diverse universe of invertebrate regeneration, they are included, as well. In order to manipulate regenerative processes, it is important to understand the underlying principles of regeneration. Laying these out is what this book is all about.

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  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of Abbreviations
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Regeneration
  • Brief History
  • What Is Regeneration?
  • Hypertrophy
  • Morphallaxis
  • Asexual Reproduction
Chapter 2: Origins of Cells in Regenerating Systems
  • Where Do Regenerating Cells Come From?
  • Dedifferentiation
  • Proliferation of Parenchymal Cells
  • Proliferation of Resident Progenitor Cells
  • Infl ux of Progenitor (Stem) Cells Originating outside the Damaged Tissue
Chapter 3: Epithelialization
  • General Features of Epithelialization
  • Models of Epithelial Healing
  • Analysis of Events in the Epithelialization of Wounds
  • Electrical Fields and Epithelialization
  • Epithelial Phagocytosis and Histolysis
  • Regeneration of Epidermal Appendages
  • Relationship between Epithelialization and Epimorphic Regeneration
Chapter 4: Role of the Substrate in Regeneration
  • Principles of Cell-Substrate Interactions
  • The Substrate in Epidermal Wound Healing
  • The Substrate in the Regeneration of a Muscle Fiber
  • The Substrate in Axonal Regeneration
  • The Substrate in Epimorphic Regeneration
  • Substrate as an Inducer
  • Natural Substrates in Guided Tissue Regeneration
  • What Are Properties of a Good Natural Regenerative Substrate?
Chapter 5: Tissue Interactions in Regeneration
  • The Amphibian Limb
  • Human Fingertips and the Mammalian Limb
  • Antler Regeneration
  • Mammalian Ear Hole Regeneration
  • Catfi sh Barbel Regeneration
  • Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Regeneration
  • Lens Regeneration in Newts
Chapter 6: Role of the Nerve in Regeneration
  • Epimorphic Regeneration
  • Tissue Regeneration
Chapter 7: Morphogenesis of Regenerating Structures
  • Types of Morphogenetic Phenomena
  • Major Concepts in Morphogenesis
  • Examples of Morphogenetic Control in Regenerating Systems
Chapter 8: Reintegrative Processes in Regeneration
  • Skeletal Tissues
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Nervous System
  • Angiogenesis
  • Regenerating Limb
  • Morphallaxis
Chapter 9: Regeneration and Embryonic Development
  • Amphibian Limb
  • Amphibian Tail
  • Amphibian Lens
  • Mammalian Skeletal Muscle
Chapter 10: Regeneration and Aging
  • Aging and Regeneration in Individual Organ Systems
  • Epimorphic Systems
  • General Characteristics of Regeneration in Old Age
  • Major Issues in Regeneration and Aging
Chapter 11: The Infl uence of the Environment on Regeneration
  • What Is Meant by Environment?
  • The Infl uence of Substrate
  • The Cellular Environment
  • Local Growth Factors
  • The Vascular Environment
  • Systemic Hormonal Infl uences
  • Role of the Overall Body Environment
  • Immunologic Environment
  • Mechanical Environment
  • Bioelectric Environment
Chapter 12: Stem Cells, Plasticity and Regeneration
  • What Is a Stem Cell?
  • Where Are Adult Stem Cells Found?
  • Properties of Adult Stem Cells
  • Stem Cells in Regeneration and Tissue Reconstruction
  • Examples of Stem Cell Participation in Regeneration
  • Integrating Stem Cell Biology with Natural Regeneration
Chapter 13: Tissue Engineering and Regeneration
  • Cellular Sources
  • Matrices and Substrates
  • Growth Factors and Cytokines in Tissue Engineering
  • Vascularization and Neurotization
  • Mechanical Environment
  • Immune Acceptance and Biocompatibility Issues
Chapter 14: Stimulation of Regeneration
  • Limb Regeneration
  • Stimulation of Regeneration in the Central Nervous System
  • Stimulation of Bone Regeneration
  • Cardiac Muscle
Chapter 15: What Have We Learned and Where Are We Going?
  • What Have We Learned?
  • Where Are We Heading?
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Index
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