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“Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Physical Methods in Penetration Enhancement”

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“Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Physical Methods in Penetration Enhancement”
The main function of skin is the protection of the body from the external environment by preventing loss of water and the ingress of exogenous substances. This implies that the skin acts as a barrier for the diffusion of substances into the underlying tissue. Despite this role, the skin has become recognized as an important drug delivery route which can be reached directly. It is an ideal site for the application of drugs for achieving local (topical) and systemic (transdermal) drug effects. Local or topical drug delivery assumes
treating various skin diseases, while transdermal delivery aims to achieve systemically active drug levels in order to treat systemic diseases.
Drugs have been applied to the skin to achieve also regional drug delivery which involves drug application to the skin to treat or alleviate disease symptoms in deep tissues beneath the skin (such as in musculature, etc.). Topical and transdermal drug delivery offer a number of advantages compared to other conventional routes, and hence they are of great interest to pharmaceutical research, which
explains the increasing interest in skin as a site of drug application.


Part I: Sonophoresis in Penetration Enhancement
Part II: Iontophoresis in Penetration Enhancement
Part III: Electroporation in Penetration Enhancement
Part IV: Novel Electrochemical Devices
Part V: Different Waves in Penetration Enhancement
Part VI: The Use of Magnetic Fields in Penetration Enhancement
Part VII: Moxibustion in Penetration Enhancement
Part VIII: Needle-Free Jet Injections
Part IX: Removing or Bypassing the Stratum Corneum
Part X: Novel Natural Methods for Bypassing the Stratum Corneum
Part XI: Combination of Different Physical Methods in Penetration Enhancement
Part XII: Combination of Passive (Chemical) and Active (Physical) Methods in Penetration Enhancement
Part XIII: Physical Methods for Transdermal Delivery of Peptides and Proteins
Part XIV: Physical Methods in Intradermal Vaccination and Gene Delivery

Title: “Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Physical Methods in Penetration Enhancement”
Author: Nina Dragicevic, Howard I. Maibach
Language: English


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